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11/05/2018, Deo Kabano

Ikibazo cy’amahoro arambye mu Rwanda cyabaye agatereranzamba muri iyi myaka 24 ishize, ahanini bitewe ku ruhande rumwe n’ubutegetsi bw’agatsiko bwijanditse mu kumena amaraso y’abenegihugu, ku bw’ibyo bukaba budateze kurekura ubutegetsi kubera ibyabubaho haramutse hari ubutabera; ku rundi ruhande bigaterwa n’abenegihugu bagaburiwe muri iyi myaka yose ubwoko bwose bw’ibikorwa bikura umutima, maze biragenda bibakuramo, baba ibikange, ku buryo basa nk’abapfuye bahagaze, kuko bemera ibibakorerwa byose bacecetse, bakamera nka wa mwana w’Intama wajyanwaga gutangwaho igitambo ku w’iteka mu isezerano rya Kera.

Ubundi rero kugira ngo ukemure ikibazo, ugomba kubanza gusobanukirwa n’uko giteye, nubwo ndi mu bemera ko uruhare runini mu mitekerereze y’abari muri iyi mpinduramatwara rwakagombye kwibanda ku ngamba zakemura ikibazo abanyarwanda bafite, kuri ubu aho kuguma mu mateka rimwe na rimwe tutanabona kimwe, ariko ntitwabasha kubikemura tutabanje gusobanukirwa byuzuye n’uko giteye. Ikosa rikomeye abari mu mpinduramatwara bashobora gukora ni ukwibwira ko agaciro baha amahoro y’abenegihugu babo, ari na ko ubutegetsi barwanya bufite. Kuko nk’uko tuza kubibona nyuma, ubutegetsi bwa Kagame bushingiye ahanini ku mwuka wa gashozantambara, kuko ari ho bukura itumambaho yabwo (legitimacy) , ku bw’izo mpamvu rero ihurizo rikomeye riri mu kumenya uburyo warwanya mu mahoro umukunzi w’iburamutekano.

  • Inkingi 4 ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwa Kagame bushingiyeho.Mu mateka y’isi, ubutegetsi bw’igitugu buhurira ku kintu cyimwe cy’ingenzi: cyo gutera ubwoba abo buyoboye no kwica rugikubita abafite ubushobozi bose bwo kuba bahwitura abandi ngo bange iyo mitegekere. Gusa nanone ibi bigakorwa biciye mu miyoboro myinshi. Twibanze rero ku butegetsi bw’igitugu bwa Kagame, twasanga bushingiye ku nkingi za mwamba enye zikurikira:- Iterambere no gusigasira ibyagezweho- Gusiga ibara ry’iterabwoba abari muri opposition :
  • I.1. jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo. Iki kintu cya jenoside rero ni icyo kwigaho cyane n’abahanira impinduramatwara kugira ngo bagaragaze ko ahubwo kwitwaza abazize jenoside n’abayirokotse kugira ngo uhe igisobanuro ubundi bwicanyi ukora cyangwa imfungwa za politiki, ubwabyo ari ugupfobya iyo jenoside ahubwo, kuko nubwo uwapfuye atakwivugira, ariko ntiyashimishwa no kubona undi uzira akarengane nk’ako we yazize. Ingamba nyinshi kuri iki kibazo zirashoboka, ariko singombwa ko tuzivuga aha muri iyi nyandiko, kuko byaba ari uguha urwaho agatsiko k’abicanyi. Dore ko bahora barekereje ngo barebe icyo abandi bateganya. Ubwo abayobozi batandukanye bari muri iyi mpinduramatwara bazamenya igikwiye
  • .I.2: Iterambere no gusigasira ibyagezweho. Iki kinyoma rero na cyo kigomba gusenywa hakoreshejwe incabwenge agatsiko katamenya.

Ikindi ubutegetsi bwa Kagame bushingiraho ni ukwereka amahanga ko u Rwanda rwageze ku iterambere rihambaye kubera ubuyobozi bwiza, ngo rukaba rugana ku cyerekezo cya Singapur. Ibyo byose ngo birangajwe imbere na Kagame. Ibi rero nk’uko nigeze kubivugaho mu nyandiko zanjye zabanje, agatsiko kagerageje kubaka imiturirwa mu murwa mukuru wa Kigali, kandi yubatswe na sosiyeti za Kagame na fpr, mu mafaranga y’abanyarwanda, na bo batishoboye, ariko kugira ngo Kigali irabagirane amahanga atangare, hanyuma kandi bashyira imbaraga mu kwamamaza ikoranabuhanga, nubwo mu bigaragara ntaririho, byose bigamije kugaragaza nanone ko Kagame agomba kuguma ku butegetsi mu rwego rwo gushimangira ibyagezweho. Nyamara kandi ubajije mwarimu, muganga, umucuruzi, umunyeshuri, umuhinzi n’izindi nzego z’abanyarwanda ntarondora, bakubwira ko nta cyo bagezeho, ko ahubwo n’utwo bari bafite baducujwe.

Kuva ingabo za RPF zafata ubutegetsi mu mwaka wa 1994, rugikubita uwahise ajya imbere mu ruhando mpuzamahanga ko yahagaritse jenoside ni Paul Kagame. Abo bafatanyije bose nta numwe uvugwa, nk’aho urugamba rwarwanywe n’umuntu umwe, nko muri za filimi za Rambo ku babyibuka arwana n’ingabo za Vietnam. Nubwo ntawashidikanya ko hari abatutsi izo ngabo zarokoye, ariko ushyira mu kuri wese azi ko zanishe umubare munini w’abandi banyarwanda bo mu bwoko bwose, kubera impamvu zitandukanye. Ariko kuko habayeho gutsinda urugamba, icyagaragaye mu ruhando mpuzamahanga, ni umuntu umwe warokoye abatutsi abakiza jenoside yabakorerwaga. Iki rero Kagame yakigize inkingi ikomeye y’ubutegetsi bwe, ku buryo abyitwaza muri byose, aho jenoside kuri we yabaye igisobanuro cy’ibikorwa bibi byose akora, akica abantu akabashinja ko bari mu bakoze genocide cyangwa se bifuzaga kuyikomeza, abo atabashije kuyishinja akabahimbira kugira ingengabitekerezo yayo. Agahindura itegekonshinga kuko ngo hagomba gusigasira ibyagezweho, harimo no kurinda ko hatazagira indi jenoside ibaho. Ibi kandi akabishyigikirwamo n’itsinda ry’abantu b’ingeri nyinshi bamufiteho indonke ikomeye (lobbyists), bityo kuzamura isura ye nk’umuntu ufite imbaraga zo kurengera ubwoko bushobora kurimburwa atariho, bikaba intwaro ikomeye yitwaza kandi agomba guhora yibutsa abantu. Ibi abikomeyeho cyane ku buryo agera n’aho kwigabaho we ubwe ibitero iyo bibaye ngombwa, inzirakarengane zikahatikirira, muribuka mwese igihe cy’ibisasu byaterwaga muri Kigali, bikabanza kwitirirwa Victoire Ingabire, nyuma bikitirirwa Jenerali Kayumba, nyuma bikarangira tutamenye aho urubanza rw’abafashwe rwahereye. Ibi byose bigakorwa kugira ngo abone igisobanuro cy’impamvu agomba kuguma ku butegetsi, kuko ngo hari abagifite imigambi mibisha ku Rwanda. Ariko nyamara Kagame ubwe n’abambari be bamaze ubwabo kwicira urubanza kuko bazi neza ko baramutse batakaje ubutegetsi nta kindi kibategereje kandi kibakwiriye usibye gereza, ni na yo mpamvu mu mvugo ye ya vuba aha yamaganye cyane Urukiko mpuzamahanga, ku mpamvu we yita ko rwita gusa ku banyafurika, akirengangiza ko ubwicanyi bwinshi buba muri Afurika, ahereye no ku bwo we ubwe akora. Akaba ndetse ari nk’aho avuga ko niba abandi bicanyi b’ahandi ku yindi migabane urwo rukiko rutabasha kubacira imanza, ko rwagombye kureka n’abicanyi b’abanyafurika bagakomeza kwiyicira uko bashatse rutabakomye mu nkokora.

  1. – Dipolomasi ishingiye mu gucuruza isura ya Kagame mu rwego mpuzamahanga
  2. – Genocide n’ingengabitekerezo yayo
  • 3. Dipolomasi ishingiye mu gucuruza isura ye mu rwego mpuzamahanga   
    1. Tudatinze muri ibi, kuko twabyanditseho igihe kinini, Ubutegetsi bwa Kagame bwambika abari mu mashyaka atavuga rumwe na bwo umwambaro w’amabara amwe ariyo: Kwangisha abaturage ubutegetsi; kugumura abaturage; kugira ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside; no kuba mu mitwe y’iterabwoba. Ibi rero byabaye intwaro ikomeye ku butegetsi bwa Kigali, buyikoresha bushyira muri gereza abashatse bose kuburwanya. Aha nagiraga ngo nshimangire ko koko mu by’ukuri abaharanira impinduramatwara bagaragara mu maso y’abagize ubutegetsi bw’igitugu nk’abateye ubwoba kuko bubabonamo nk’abashobora ku berekeza mu nzira y’ubutabera, kandi ni cyo kintu cya mbere batinya. Ku bw’izo mpamvu rero dukwiye gushima cyane byimazeyo abantu nka Victoire Ingabire, Diane na Adeline Rwigara, Deo Mushayidi, Theoneste Niyitegeka, Kizito Mihigo, Boniface Twagirimana, General Frank Rusagara, Tom Byabagamba n’abandi bose bagize ubutwari bwo kwanga akarengane. Uwibwira ko ibyo bakoze byoroshye azagerageze kubikora ni bwo azabisobanukirwa. Ni ikintu rero cy’ingirakamaro guhora tubavuga kandi bigomba no kuba inshingano yacu kuko ni imiyoboro y’icyerekezo gishya twifuza (vecteurs de changement).
    2. I.4 .Gusiga ibara ry’iterabwoba abari muri opposition
    3. Aha simpatinda cyane , abazi u Rwanda bazi neza ko Dipolomasi yarwo ishingiye mu guhora itera imbabazi, ivuga ubudasiba ko rwose u Rwanda hari abatarwifuriza amahoro, ko amahanga agomba gushyigikira ibyo rusabye byose kuko ari ukwirengera, ibyo rwabikoze imyaka myinshi, ariko icyavuyemo nuko rwatsinzwe kuko rwananiwe kubana neza n’abaturanyi, ariko wasesengura ugasanga ahanini aruko imbaraga nyinshi dipolomasi ya kigali yazishyize mu gutaka Kagame, kugeza ubwo ubu noneho yabaye umu star wa filimi, ariko ibi bikagagaragaza bya bindi navuze hejuru yuko abagize agatsiko na Kagame ubarangaje imbere bafite muri bo ipfunwe bagendana ko ari abicanyi, bityo bakaba bagomba gukora ibishoboka byose ngo bagaragare nk’abantu b’indashyikirwa muri Afurika yose, nyamara ibi ntaho bitaniye no kubwira indorerwamo yawe ngo ikugaragaze uri inzobe kandi mu by’ukuri uri igikara. Ubaze ingendo Kagame akora mu Mwaka, (twirengangije ko aba ashaka kwiyungukira agafaranga akoresheje indege ze), wasanga ziruta izikorwa n’abaperezida ba Afurika ubakomatanyije bose. Ibi bigashimangira ibyo mugenzi wanjye Epimaque Ntamushobora akunda kuvuga ko Kagame ariwe mu Perezida wa mbere ku isi wanga abaturage be. Aha rero naho hari ibikwiye gukorwa kugira ngo dusenye iki kinyoma.
  • Ese impinduramatwara ishingiye ku mahoro irashoboka mu Rwanda
  1. Isura tumaze kugaragaza y’imiterere y’ubutegetsi bwa Kagame, iteye ubwoba ku buryo gutekereza ko hari uburyo ingoma nk’iye yahinduka binyuze mu nzira y’amahoro bisa nk’inzozi. Mu bihugu byinshi byagiye bigira impinduramatwara ishingiye ku mahoro, byakoresheje inzira nyinshi zitandukanye binyuze cyane mu nzira zanditswe n’umwanditsi kirangiranwa Gene Sharp. Uyu akaba ariko abanza gushimangira ko hari impamvu nyinshi zituma abenegihugu bubaha ubutegetsi bw’igitugu, aho avuga ko bishobora guturuka mu
  • kubaha;
  • gutinya ibihano;
  • kubaha biturutse kuri kamere iva ku muco runaka;
  • kubaha ku bw’inyungu utegereje;
  • kubaha kubw’ ikirango cyangwa kashe runaka washyizweho n’ubutegetsi;
  • kwirengagiza ibyo ubona;
  • kutigirira icyizere ko hari icyo ushoboye. Aha rero wakwibaza uti se mu gihugu giteye gutyo impinduka ishingiye ku mahoro yashoboka ite?
  • Gene Sharp we mu magambo avunaguye agaragaza impinduramatwara zishingiye ku mahoro mu buryo butatu, aribwo:
  • Ibi byose bikaba mu byukuri bigaragara muri sosiyeti nyarwanda aho ubutegetsi bwagaburiye abaturange imitekerereze yo kumva ko aribwo bubasha kubageza kuri byose, ko bo ubwabo ntacyo bishoboreye, bukitwaza amahano yabaye mu Rwanda ngo bugire igice kimwe cy’abanyarwanda nk’ibicibwa byababariwe kuko biri mu bwoko bw’abakoze genocide, hanyuma ikindi gice nacyo bukacyumvisha ko kuba kiriho ari uburinzi gikesha ubwo butegetsi, ko butariho bashira, bityo rero bakaba bagomba bose kubaha buhumyi nk’inyiturano y’ibyiza ubutegetsi bwabagejejeho, abatabikoze bagahura n’ingorane zitandukanye twagiye tuvuga hejuru.
  • Kwigaragambya, no kwemeza abayobozi kwakira no kwemera ibitekerezo abaharanira impinduramatwara bashaka.
  • Uko mbibona: ibi mu Rwanda biragoye cyane, kuko imyigaragambyo itemewe, n’ababigerageje bakaba barahuye n’insanganya zikomeye, urugero rwa vuba ni urw’impunzi za Kiziba. Ku bw’izo mpamvu rero ubutegetsi bukaba bwaragaragaje ko butiteguye kuganira n’uwariwe wese ufite imigambi yo kubusaba kureka imigenzereze yaburanze muri iyi myaka 24 ishize, ishingiye mu guhoza rubanda ku iterabwoba, kuko byabyaye umusaruro, bakayoboka. Ariko na none bukaba butayobewe ko nubwo bayobotse ariko bafite intimba, umujinya n’agahinda bishobora kubyara ikibatsi cy’impinduka zikomeye baramutse bemereye uwari we wese kwigaragambya. Ibi barabitinya cyane ni nayo mpamvu bahitamo kwica izuba riva, kuko kuribo byoroshye kurusha ibyo bahura nabyo baretse rubanda rukatura ibyo rubitse mu mitima.
  • Kutitabira ibikorwa rusange bya leta bishingiye ku bukungu n’imiyoborere.
  • Uko mbibona: ibi mbona hari uburyo byashoboka, ariko sinshaka kubisobanura muri iyi nyandiko kuko byakungukira cyane umunyagitugu kurusha uharanira impinduramatwara. Ababishinzwe bafite uko bazabikora.
  • Ibikorwa by’umutuzo Icyo nasaba rero abanyarwanda muri Rusange nuko twagirira icyizere abari kutuyobora muri iyi mpinduramatwara, tukumva ibyo badusaba kandi tukabikurikiza, tukirinda gusobanya, tugashyira imbaraga hamwe aho kwirirwa dushwana ku ma radio tureba ufite ukuri n’utagufite, ahubwo tukarangwa na disipuline mu bikorwa byacu byose. Niho honyine tuzabasha gushyigura ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwa Kigali, bitari ibyo tuzaba turi kugosorera mu rucaca.
  • Mu gusubiza rero ikibazo twateruye twibaza niba impinduramatwara ishingiye ku mahoro ishoboka mu Rwanda, twavuga ko igisubizo ari Yego, ARIKO, nongere nti ARIKO, nta mpinduramatwara n’imwe yabayeho nta bitambo bibayeho, iyo turimo ubu mu Rwanda ituzanira ibitambo muri munsi, ariko icyo dusaba abatuyoboye ni ukutwigira ingamba zose zishoboka zatuma ubutegetsi buhinduka mu Rwanda hatongeye kubaho ibitambo biremereye nk’ibyo twabonye. Intambara ni mbi aho iva ikagera kandi ntawuyungukiramo yaba uwayitsinze cyangwa uwayitsinzwe kuko ituvanamo abanegihugu kandi bitari bikwiye. Usibye umwicanyi ruharwa nka Kagame uyishimira akanicuza ko igihe cyamubanye gito, ndetse agashishikariza n’abatayikora kuyikora, ntawundi muntu utekereza wakishimiye intambara.
  • Uko mbibona: ibi nabyo birashoboka kandi bifite uburyo bwinshi byakorwamo, hari n’ibyatangiye kandi byabyaye umusaruro. Ibindi nabyo biri mu nzira kandi ikoranabuhanga isi igezeho yafasha kwihutisha iyi ngamba.

Mana abakurambere bacu bavuze ko wirirwa ahandi ugataha I Rwanda, banguka udutabare. Imana ibahe amahoro n’abanyu mwe