Partager/Share/Sangiza

13/07/2018, Aloys Musomesha 

Muri iyi nyandiko tugiye kurebera hamwe uburyo abanyarwanda dukwiye kugira ubutabera mpuzabantu (médiation) bwunganira ubutabera busanzweho.

Duharanire ubutabera bubereye bose kuri byose, hose kandi igihe cyose

Ibihugu byinshi byateye imbere byamaze kubona ko ubucamanza busanzwe bufite ibibazo, bityo ababuranyi bamwe bakaba binubira imwe mu mikorere yabwo kuko babona ko ubwo bucamanza butabarengera uko bikwiye. Niba rero abaturage bo muri ibyo bihugu barabonye ko ubwo butabera bufite ibibazo, abo mu bihugu byakolonijwe (cyane cyane ibyo muri Afurika) bagombye nabo kubona ko ibyo bibazo iwabo byarenze kamere. Kandi ni mu gihe, kuko ubwo bucamanza bwabo babuzaniwe n’abakoloni. Ubwo burakare bw’abaturage ni imwe mu mpamvu zatumye, kuva muri 1985, Umuryango w’abibumbye (ONU) ushishikariza ibihugu byose byo kw’isi gushyiraho ubundi buryo bwunganira ubucamanza busanzwe mu gukemura ibibazo byabo. Uwo muryango usaba ibyo bihugu gushyiraho ndetse za gahunda zo guteza imbere ubutabera buhuza abantu hamwe n’ubutabera bubafasha kwiyunga (les programmes de médiation et de justice réparatrice). Ibyo ntibyanagombye kugora abanyarwanda kuko mu muco karande wa kera bari bafite ubwo butabera mbere y’uko busimburwa n’ubwazanywe n’abakoloni. Igikomeye kikaba ari ukubuhuza n’umuco wacu w’iki gihe wivanze n’uwabo.

Kugirango byumvikane neza ukuntu ubwo butabera bushya bushoboka iwacu i Rwanda, ndabigereranya n’ukuntu urugaga rw’abavoka (Barreau des avocats) rwa mbere rwagiyeho. Ngiye gukora icyo kigereranyo kuko abavoka (les avocats) bafite umulimo ufitiye abaturage akamaro wo kunganira ababuranyi mu nkiko no mu zindi nzego z’ubuyobozi bityo bagafasha ubucamanza n’abayobozi gukora akazi neza mu buryo buhuje n’amategeko. Ubutabera mpuzabantu nabwo bwunganira ubucamanza busanzwe mu kurwanya akarengane. Mu bindi bihugu aho ubutabera mpuzabantu bwatangiye gushinga imizi, abahuza (les médiateurs, conciliateurs) nabo bagira ndetse uruhare mu gukomeza ubwigenge bw’ubutabera. Bafasha abantu bafitanye ibibazo kubyikemurira batarinze kunyura imbere y’abacamanza.

Uko Urugaga rw’abavoka rwagiyeho

Guhera mu myaka yegera 1988, mu Rwanda niho abantu bamwe bake batangiye gukora akazi ko gufasha ababuranyi mu bibazo bafite mu nkiko ariko batababuranira kuko nta tegeko ryabibemereraga. Icyo gihe bari nka ba « démarcheurs ». Nyamara kandi itegeko rishyiraho inkiko ryateganyaga ko ababuranyi bashobora guhagararirwa cyangwa kwunganirwa n’abavoka, ariko nta tegeko rwashyiragaho Urugaga rw’abavoka ryabagaho. Kubera ko ababuranyi baba badasobanukiwe n’amategeko kandi ari n’uburenganzira bwabo bwo kugira abababuranira, byatumye abo batangiye uwo murimo babona ko abaturage bakeneye gufashwa mu manza kugirango zicibwe neza. Ibyo byatumye Ministeri y’ubutabera ishyiraho itegeko-teka ryemera umwuga wo kunganira no kuburanira abandi mu nkiko (mandataire professionnel en justice) ibisabwe n’abashakaga gukora uwo mwuga.

Iryo tegeko-teka ryateganyaga ibyangombwa uwasabaga gukora uwo mwuga yagombaga kwuzuza. Uburanira abandi yagombaga kwerekana mu nkiko ikarita yahawe na Ministri w’ubutabera imwemerera gukora ako kazi kugirango ashobore kwunganira cyangwa kuburanira umuburanyi. Nyuma abakoraga uwo mwuga mushya wari umaze kwemerwa twishyize hamwe mw’ishyirahamwe (association des mandataires professionnels en justice). Abari muri iryo shyirahamwe ariko si ko bose bari bafite impamyabushobozi ihanitse mu by’amategeko (licence en droit). Harimo abari baremerewe gukora uwo mwuga kubera uburambe bafite mu kazi kajyanye n’amatekego cyangwa n’ubutabera (expérience professionnelle dans les fonctions juridiques ou judiciaires). Abize amategeko bari bake kandi bari banakenewe mu nkiko no mu yindi mirimo ya Leta cyangwa mu bigo byigenga n’ibya Leta.

Intambara ya 1990 yatangiye mu gihe gushyiraho urugaga rwa ba Avoka byari bikiri mu mushinga. Nyuma y’intambara ya 1990-1994, abakoraga uwo mwuga wo kunganira no kuburanira abandi mu nkiko twishyize hamwe dusaba ko hajyaho itegeko rishyiraho urugaga rwa ba Avoka mu Rwanda. Iryo tegeko ryateguwe na Ministeri y’ubutabera, rishyikirizwa Inteko ishinga amategeko iraryemeza, risohoka kuwa 19 werurwe 1997, abagize Urugaga rwa ba Avoka turahira tariki ya 30 Kanama 1997. Abatari bafite impamyabushobozi mu by’amategeko bari bemerewe kuburana gusa mu nkiko za Kanto n’iza mbere z’iremezo ariko ntibaburane mu zindi nkiko zo hejuru nk’urukiko rw’ubujurire, n’urusesa imanza. Uwo mwaka ntuzibagirana mu mateka y’ubutabera kuko ni intambwe URwanda rwateye nyuma y’imyaka yose ubutabera bwamaze butagira Urugaga rw’aba Avoka, kandi mu bindi bihugu kugira Avoka ari uburenganzira bw’ibanze ku muburanyi wese.

Dutegure ubutabera mpuzabantu

Sinshidikanya ko ubutabera mpuzabantu buramutse bugiyeho mu Rwanda bwakemura ibibazo byinshi byamunze ubucamanza kuva kera cyane. Bwakwihutisha kandi bukagabanya imanza mu nkiko, amagereza akareka kwuzuramo abantu bataraburana cyangwa batagira amadosiye, ruswa zigacika mu nkiko (kuko abafitanye ibibazo bashobora kubyicyemurira), abanyarwanda bakabona ubutabera bubegereye kandi butabahenze, ababuranyi bakarushaho kwumva ko ikibazo bafitanye ari bo kireba mbere na mbere, uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu bukubahirizwa kuri buri wese, hakabaho ubutabera bubereye bose, hose kandi igihe cyose. Ku buryo bw’umwihariko, ubwo butabera bushya bwacyemura neza mu biganiro ibibazo birebana n’ibyaha byakozwe mu guhohotera abanyarwanda kubera ubwoko bwabo (infractions à caractère ethnique). Busubiza abantu ubumuntu batakaje kubera ibyo byaha maze ubwiyunge nyakuri bukagerwaho.

Kugirango ubwo butabera bushya bushobore gukora neza, nkuko mu mashuri yisumbuye n’amakuru harimo amashami yigisha amategeko akoreshwa mu bucamanza, hagombye nabwo kuzajyaho andi mashami yigisha ubwo bumenyi bwo guhuza abantu bafitanye ibibazo kandi bifuza kubikemura. Abafite impamyabushobozi muri ubwo bumenyi (médiation) bakazakora umwuga w’umuhuza (médiateur). Ku mirenge hose, abaturage batageze muri ayo mashuri ntibahezwa gukora uwo mwuga. Abifuza kuwukora ariko batashoboye kwiga ayo mashuri muri ubwo bumenyi, bahabwa amahugurwa, bakaba abahuza (conciliateurs) ariko batari mu rwego rumwe n’ababifitiye impamyabushobozi (médiateurs). Birumvikana kandi ko imikorere y’abahuza bahuguwe (conciliateurs) itaba imwe n’iy’abahuza babifitiye impamyabushobozi. Itegeko ryasobanura kandi rigatandukanya imikorere yabo.

Ndibutsa ko kuba umuhuza (médiateur, conciliateur) bidasaba kuba warize amategeko kubera ko uwo mwuga utandukanye n’ubucamanza. Umucamanza ashinzwe gufata icyemezo ku mpaka ababuranyi bafitanye yifashishije amategeko, ariko umuhuza we nta cyemezo afata ahubwo afasha abantu gukemura ubwabo ikibazo kibareba, bakaba ari bo ubwabo bakibonera igisubizo, bakabyemeza mu masezerano. Dukurikije rero ko abanyarwanda benshi ndetse na Leta nta mikoro ahagije bafite yo guhemba aba avoka igihe cyose kandi n’abize amategeko akaba ari bacye cyane, biragaragara ko ubwo buryo bwo gucyemura ibibazo bubereye abaturage benshi.

Ndongeraho ko ubwo butabera bushobora guhuza abantu benshi (médiation élargie) iyo ikibazo nabo kibareba, nk’imiryango y’uwakoze icyaha n’uwagikorewe, ndetse n’abaturanyi bo ku murenge. Ibyo bituma abo nabo bamenya ukuri kandi bagashobora kwiyunga n’umunyacyaha, bityo amahoro arambye akagaruka muri rubanda. Muri « Mpuzabantu », abafitanye ikibazo bashobora kandi guhuzwa n’umuhuza umwe cyangwa benshi bafatanyije. Ikindi ni uko ubwo butabera bukemura igihe cyose ibibazo byose nta kuvangura gushingiye ku buremere bwabyo cyangwa ku nyito zabyo, bugahuza ababwiyambaje nk’abantu basangiye ubumuntu.

Abanyarwanda duharanira ubwiyunge nyakuri dukwiye kwishyira hamwe tukungurana ibitekerezo by’ukuntu bwagerwaho. Kubera ko ubutabera mpuzabantu ari imwe mu nzira zatugeza kuri ubwo bwiyunge dushaka, twagombye nabwo kubuharanira.

Aloys Musomesha 

Icyitonderwa: iyi nyandiko ikozwe mu rwego rw’Umushinga w’ubwiyunge nyakuri (Projet-DVJP), umushinga w’ubwiyunge buyobowe n’amategeko, ukuri, ubutabera n’imbabazi. Uyu mushinga uyobora ubwiyunge mu mahoro kandi ufite gahunda eshatu (3 programmes): gahunda rusange y’ubwiyunge bw’abantu, gahunda y’ubutabera buhuza abantu bukanabunga, na gahunda y’ubwiyunge nyakuri bw’abanyarwanda.