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Deo Kabano, 06/06/2019

Samora Moise Machel ni umugabo wavukaga mu gihugu cya Mozambique, akaba yaravukiye ahitwa Shangaan mu ntara ya Gaza ahagana mu mwaka wa 1933. Uyu mugabo uzwi cyane mu kuba yarabaye ku isonga ry’umutwe wa politiki waharaniraga ubwigenge bwa Mozambique mu gihe cy ‘ubukoloni bwa Portugal, yabonwaga na benshi nk’uzazana impinduka zizagirira akamaro abanya mozambique, ariko nyamara nkuko tuza kubibona, yaje  kubatera ibibazo bitari bicye, biturutse ku miyoborere ye yaranzwe n’igitugu n’ukwikanyiza, bisa cyane nk’ibyo tubona mu Rwanda rw’iki gihe. Muti kagire inkuru.Kugira ngo tuze kumva iyi nyandiko neza, ni ngombwa ko dusubira mu mateka gato.

Mu mwaka wa 1963 nibwo Samora Machel yataye umugore we, nuko ahitamo kujya mu ishyamba gusanga abandi mu rugamba rwo kubohora igihugu cye, ibi bikaba byari bikurikiye ibiganiro yari yaragiranye mu ibanga n’uwitwa Edouardo Mondlane wari mu bashinze ishyaka FRELIMO ( Front de liberation du Mozambique «  ishyaka ryo kubohora Mozambique) . aha ndabasaba kuza kuzirikana iri jambo « Kubohora). Machel rero muri uwo mwaka nibwo yasanze Chef Mondlane i Dar es salaam, hanyuma aza koherezwa mu gihugu cya Algerie gukurikirana amasomo ya gisirikare, avayo asanga abandi barwanyi bagera kuri 250 batangije intambara yo kurwanya abakoloni b’abanya Portugal.

Machel rero yagiye azamuka mu myanya mu buryo butunguranye, aho mu mwaka 1966 yaje kuba umunyamabanga mukuru  w’ingabo za FRELIMO asimbuye uwitwa Felipe Magaia wari umazekugwa ku rugamba. Mu 1968 Machel yabaye umugaba mukuru w’ingabo za FRELIMO, bityo aba aninjiye mu kanama gakuru k’iryo shyaka. Iri shyaka kandi uko ryagendaga rifata uduce tumwe na tumwe twa Mozambique ni nako ryashyiragaho inzego z’ubuyobozi muri utwo duce, bituma umubare w’abana bagana ishuli wiyongera ndetse n’ibigo nderabuzima bigenda nabyo  byiyongera ndetse n’ubuhinzi bwitabwaho. Aha twibukiranye neza ko iri shyaka ryari ritarafata ubutegetsi neza. mu mwaka wa 1969, nyuma y’urupfu rwa Edouardo Mondlane, Machel yagiye mu itsinda ry’abantu batatu bahawe inshingano zo kuyobora ishyaka ari kumwe n’abitwa Marcelino dos Santos na Uria Simango. Mu mwaka wa 1970 Machel yaje kubasha kwigizayo abo bari bayoboranye ishyaka asigara ariyobora wenyine. Hagati aho ariko mu mwaka wakurikiyeho wa 1971 yaje kubura umugore we wa kabiri  witabye Imana azize uburwayi.

Mu mwaka wa 1973 hashyizweho inzego z’ishyaka icyo bitaga « Ishuli ry’ishyaka » aho abaturage bigishwaga amatwara ya FRELIMO. Muri uwo mwaka kandi nibwo Machel yaje gushakana n’uwitwa Graca Simbine benshi bazi ku izina rya Graca Machel, waje gushakana na Nelson Mandela mu mwaka wa 1998, hashize imyaka 12 Samora Machel aguye mu mpanuka y’indege nkuko turi buze kubibona.

Mu mwaka wa 1974, ubwo ubutegetsi bwahindukaga muri Portugal, byakurikiranye no guha ubwigenge ibihugu byari byara kolonijwe n’icyo gihugu, harimo Mozamique, Angola, Guinee Bissau, Sao tome  et principe na cap vert)

Amasezerano yashyizweho umukono ku italiki ya 7 nzeri 1974 yahaye rugali FRELIMO mu gushyiraho inzego nshya z’ubutegetsi , ibi bikurikirana n’igisa n’uburakali bw’abakoloni babarirwa mu 200 000 bavuye muri Mozambique ,bamwe bajya iburayi , abandi bajya muri afurika y’epfo, ariko basiga  batwitse imirima yabo , ibyaje gutera igihombo gikomeye cyane igihugu cya Mozambique.

Kujya ku butegetsi kwa FRELIMO ntibyabujije bamwe mu banyamuryango bayo b’imena kwitandukanya nayo rugikubita kuko bayinengaga imikorere idashwitse. Ariko ikibabaje nuko uko kutabona ibintu kimwe nayo, FRELIMO itabyihanganiye, maze ihiga bukware  bamwe mu bayobozi b’amashyaka ataravugaga rumwe nayo, harimo n’abigeze kuba abayoboke bayo nka Padiri Mateus Gwengere washimutiwe muri Kenya aho yari yarahungiye, akazanwa muri Mozambique, Lazaro Nkavandame, Uria Simango, Paulo Unhai, Kambeu n’abandi.. Aba bose bakaba bararegwaga ko baba bari bashyigikiye imyigaragambyo y’abazungu batashakaga ko bamburwa ubutaka bwabo.

Aba bose rero baje kwitwa “ abagambanyi,maze bacibwa imanza zihuse cyane zari ziyobowe na Samora Machel ubwe hagendewe ku cyo bitaga « Inkiko z’abaturage kandi zigenga » ushobora kugereranya na “Gacaca” zo mu Rwanda. Aba bagabo navuze baje gufungirwa mu kitwaga « Inkambi yo gukosorerwamo »( Camp de reeducation) ahitwa M’telela mu ntara ya Niassa, nuko ku italiki ya 25 kamena 1977, ubwo hizihizwaga isabukuru ya kabiri y’ubwigenge  bwa Mozambique, baje gukurwa muri iyo nkambi babwiwe ko bajyanywe kureba Perezida Samora Machel ngo bumvikane ku irekurwa ryabo, nyamara ahubwo wari umutego mutindi kuko ubwo bari mu nzira bagenda imodoka zari zibaherekeje zohereje iyo barimo mu nzira yarimo icyobo cyari cyateguwe neza cyuzuyemo ibiti byinshi maze igwamo, nuko bayisukaho essence nyinshi barangije barayitwika, urugendo rwabo ruba rurangiriye aho. Ubwo bashyaga bakongoka abasirikare bo bari bahagaze hejuru y’icyobo baririmba indirimbo z’ishyaka riri ku butegetsi. Urupfu rw’izi mpirimbanyi za demokarasi rwaje kumenywa nyuma y’imyaka 18, kuko byakomeje kugirwa ibanga n’ubutegetsi bwariho.  Abandi barwanashyaka b’imena ba FRELIMO nabo babashije guhunga igihugu barimo Domingos  Arouca, Pereira Leite, n’umunyamategeko Willem Gerard Pott uyunyamara warwanyije ba gashakabuhacye  mu gihe FRELIMO yarwaniraga ubwigenge, yaje kunengwa nayo aho igereye ku butegetsi ashinjwa ko atiyerekanye nk’uyishyigikiye bidashidikanywaho. Abandi nabo batabashije guhunga bagiye bakorerwa ibikorwa by’ubushinyaguzi n’urukozasoni, harimo nko kuberekana ku karubanda bambaye ubusa.

Kuva aho FRELIMO igereye ku butegetsi ku italiki ya 25 kamena 1975, yashyizeho inzego zirimo nk’icyitwa SNASP (Service national de securité populaire « Urwego rw’igihugu rushinzwe umutekano w’abaturage ») n’ikitwa PIC ( Police d’investigation criminelle «  Urwego rwa Police rugenzura ibyaha ») kuva aho izo nzego zigiriyeho, infungwa zabaye nyinshi haba mu magereza asanzwe cyangwa se aho bitaga « Campos de reeducacao » Camp de reeducation, cyangwa se Inkambi zo gukosorerwamo , izi zikaba zarashyirwagwa iyo bigwa mu mashyamba y’inzitane, izi nkambi ni nazo zaje gufungirwamo umugore wa mbere wa Samora Machel, umwe yataye mu mwaka 1963 ubwo yajyaga gutangira urugamba, kandi uyu bikaba bizwi ko nta bikorwa bya politiki yigeze ajyamo.

Ubuzima bwa buri munsi bw’abaturage bwagenzurwaga n’inzego zitwa « Groupes de dynamisation » tugenekereje twakwita amatsinda yo guhwitura, izo nzego zikaba zarabonekaga mu nzego z’ibanze no mu bigo by’akazi.

Samora Machel, agendeye ku matwara ya gikomunisiti yaje gushyiraho politiki y’ubuhinzi yategetswe abaturage, aho bahurizwaga mu midugudu yabo kugira ngo bahinge ibyo bategetswe. iyi politiki yaje kugaragaza umusaruro mucye bidatinze, inzara iratera, noneho Machel asubira kucyo yari yaranze maze ajya gusaba inkunga mu kigega cy’ubukungu cy’isi « FMI »

Machel wari umaze kugira ibibazo, cyane ko igihugu cye cyari gishyigikiye ishyaka rya ANC ryarwanyaga ba gashakabuhake bo muri Afurika y’epfo, aba nabo bagashyigikira ishyaka rya RENAMO ryarwanyaga ubutegetsi muri Mozambique, iyi nayo igashyigikira ishyaka rya ZANU ryarwanyaga ba gashakabuhake bo muri Rhodesie (Zimbabwe), ibi byose byabaye imibare itoroshye kuri Leta ya Samora Machel, cyane ko itabonaga inkunga ifatika ituruka mu barusiya abo Machel yari yarigiyeho imiyoborere. Nubwo bwose ishyaka rya RENAMO ryari ryaramugabyeho igitero ryabaye nk’iricika intege ubwo umukuru waryo yicwaga mu mwaka 1979, hanyuma na Zimbabwe ikabona ubwigenge, ibi ntibyabujije intambara gukomeza ndetse isa nk’iciyemo igihugu kabiri.

Ubwo Machel yajyaga kwaka inkunga muri FMI, inzara yacaga ibintu, abaturage bigaragambya, biza kugera aho ibintu birenga Machel, maze asubizaho politiki y’ikiboko mu ruhame, n’igihano cy’urupfu.

Imibanire ya Mozambique n’abaturanyi nayo ntiyari shyashya, nkuko bigaragarira mu nama yo   kuya 19 ukwakira 1986, aho Machel yareze Mobutu wa Zaire gushyigikira RENAMO, anarega Malawi guha ubuhungiro abayobocye ba RENAMO, ndetse anavuga ko nibiba ngombwa azohereza ibisazu bya rutura  muri Malawi niba itabihagaritse, ndetse akayifatira ibihano mu Rwego rw’ubukungu.

Machel wari waradindije umubano wa Mozambique na Portugal, cyane ko yaregwaga ko atakoze ibyashobokaga ngo abanya Portugal bakoraga ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi n’ubucuruzi bagume muri Mozambique nyuma y’ubwigenge, kubera imvugo ze zikarishye zabibaga urwango rw’abazungu mu baturage,  ibi bikaba byarateje ikibazo cy’ubukungu gikomeye;  yaje gushyira acisha macye, cyane cyane abifashijwemo na Minisitiri w’intebe we Joachim Chissano, waje no kumusimbura nyuma y’urupfu rwe. Uyu akaba yarabashije kugarura bamwe muri abo bazungu bari barahunze igihugu.

Ku italiki ya 19 ukwakira 1986, ubwo Perezida  Samora Machel yavaga mu nama i Lusaka muri Zambia, inama yigaga ku byemezo rusange bigomba gufatirwa ubutegetsi bwa gashakabucye muri Afurika yepfo, indege yari imutwaye hamwe n’abandi bantu 24 bari kumwe, yaje kuburirwa irengero, hanyuma iza gushwanyukira mu misozi ya Lebombo muri Afurika y’epfo. Mozambique yaje kumenyeshwa iby’urwo rupfu nyuma y’amasaha 10. Joachim Chissano niwe waje gusimbura Machel ku butegetsi.

Iyo mpanuka yakozweho amaperereza menshi, inzego za Afurika y’epfo zerekanye ko impanuka yatewe n’amakosa y’abadereva, mu gihe leta y’abarusiya ndetse na Mozambique bo bavugaba ko indege yayobejwe n’abashakaga kwivugana umukuru w’igihugu. Umwe mu bahoze mu buyobozi bw’igipolisi cya Mozambique we yanditse igitabo avuga ko  Machel yishwe  n’intasi z’abarusiya zifatanyije n’iza abanyafurika yepfo ku mabwiriza y’ibyo bihugu bitishimiraga uburyo  yari atangiye kwegera ibihugu by’iburayi. Kugeza magingo aya hakaba hakiri urujijo ku mpamvu nyakuri yateje iyo mpanuka.

ISOMO DUKURA MURI IYI NKURU

Niba twagendanye, mwagiye mubonamo ko ibikorwa by’imiyoborere yari muri Mozamique nyuma yuko FRELIMO ifata ubutegetsi, igenda isa cyane n’iyo tubona iwacu i Rwanda magingo aya. Tunibukiranye ko kandi abayobozi bamwe b’ingabo za RPF barwanye mu gihugu cya Mozambique.

Mureke turebere hamwe isano z’imiyoborere muri ibyo bihugu byombi, ku gihe cya Samora Machel no kuri iyi ngoma ya Paul Kagame

  • UBUTEGETSI : Uburyo Machel yageze ku butegetsi ahigitse abandi babiri bari baraherewe inshingano rimwe nyuma y’urupfu rw’umukuru w’ishyaka, biratwibutsa cyane, imfu zagiye ziba nyuma y’urupfu rwa Fred Rwigema, aho abari abasirikare bakuru muri RPF bagiye bapfa amarabira, kandi bikarangira nta pererezaribayeho, ndetse bakaba batanibukwa nk’abagize uruhare mu rugamba rwitwaga ko ari urwo kubohoza u Rwanda.
  • KUBOHORA : Abari barayobotse ishyaka rya FRELIMO bibwiraga ko rije kubohora abanya mozambique bose ntavangura. Ariko babonye ibitagenda neza  bahisemo kwitandukanya naryo, icyaje kubabaho nuko bishwe urupfu rubi, bamwe bashimutirwa mu mahanga nkuko ingoma ya Kagame nayo ibimenyereye, abandi bashinyagurirwa mu ruhame, nkuko ibi nabyobyabaye twibanire i mu Rwanda rw’ubu.
  • UBUCAMAZA : biratangaje kubona umukuru w’igihugu ariwe wanafashe inshingano zo kuyobora urwego rwaciriye imanza abiyomoye kuri FRELIMO, ariko ku munyarwanda w’ubu ureba neza ntibitangaje kuko no mu RWANDA umucamaza mukuru ari Paul Kagame. Mwibuke ko aherutse kwivugira ko hari ubundi butabera banyuzamo abigize ba “rutare”. murantunga wa mugani w’abarundi, “rutare” ni muntu ki?
  • UBUHINZI : Politiki yo gutegeka abaturage guhinga ibyo badashaka yateje akaga abanya Mozambique mu gihe cya FRELIMO, cyakora nimbe nabo bemeye ko idatanga umusaruro banajya gusabira infashanyo abicwaga n’inzara.Mu rwanda ho bazemera ryari ko politiki ya Lands consolidation ari icyuka kidafite icyo kimariye abaturage usibye kubicisha inzara ? cyakora niba ariwo mugambi bawugezeho.
  • ISHULI RY’ISHYAKA : iri shuli ry’ishyaka FRELIMO yigishirizagamo abaturage uwarigereranya n’itorero ry’igihugu mu Rwanda ntiyaba yibeshye. Gusa umenya umusaruro umaze kuba mucye ubwo basigaye barahiza abantu barangiza bagahunga. cyereka niba ari andi mayeri yo kujijisha ngo begere abo batavuga rumwe babatsembe, kuko uwo mugambi nawo uriho, cyakora twizere ko abanyarwanda bagifite agatima batazagwa muri uwo mutego. Nta kintu bimaze na gato kumva ko uwo mutavuga rumwe agomba kuvanwa ku isi, utarabibona akeneye ubufasha.
  • IZINA RY’UBUGAMBANYI : irindi sano hagati ya FRELIMO NA FPR nuko abayiyomoyeho bose yabise abagambanyi, aho kubona ko ari abantu bafite ibitekerezo bitandukanye n’ibyayo. Ibi biratwibutsa amazina amaze kumenyerwa mu Rwanda nka « Ibigarasha, Ibipinga, … »
  • INKAMBI YO GUKOSORERWAMO : izi nkambi zo gukosorerwamo FRELIMO yari yarashyize mu mashyamba ahajyanwagwa abatavuga rumwe nayo, ziratwibutsa za « Safe houses» mu Rwanda bashimutiramo abantu, bakabakanyaga kugeza  bemeye ibyaha byose bashaka ko bemera, bakabona kubazana imbere y’inkiko.
  • INFU Z’AGASHINYAGURO : Gutwika abari abayoboke ba FRELIMO, bigaragaza ubugome buhambaye busa nkubwo twagiye tubona mu Rwanda, aho abari barashyigikiye FPR bishwe nabi, nka ba Rwigara, Rwisereka, Rwabukamba, Kabera, Major Kayitare, muganga Gasakure, Anselme mutuyimana, n’abandi benshi ntarondora ngo nzarangize.
  • INTORE : ibyo twabonye muri mozambique byitwaga Groupe de dynamisation, byari bishinzwe kugenzura umuturage kuva ku mudugudu kugera aho akora ku kazi, twabigereranya n’intore cyangwa ze za DASSO zirirwa zigenzura umuturage kuva kucyo yariye, kugera aho atemberera n’uwo avugana nawe.

 

UMWANZURO

Mu kwanzura ntitwabura gushima abaturage ba Mozambique ko nyuma y’urupfu rwa Samora Machel bagerageje kwinjira mu nzira ya demokarasi isesuye, cyane cyane      bitangijwe na Joachim Chissano, none magingo  aya ubuyobozi bukaba bwarakomeje       gusimburana binyuze mu matora. Ntawavuga ko Samora Machel ntacyo yamariye abanya       Mozambique kuko aho byaba ari ukwirengagiza ukuri. Kuba yarabaye ku isonga mu guharanira ubwigenge bw’igihugu cye ni iby’igiciro gikomeye. Gusa kuba yarananiwe   kugendera ku mahame ya demokarasi nabyo ntawabura kubimugaya.

Icyo twakwibaza ni ukumenya niba abanyarwanda nabo hari amasomo bazakura k’ubutegetsi bubatsikamira, maze nabo bakazayoboka inzira ya demokarasi kandi y’amahoro.  Benshi         bibwira ko ubutegetsi buriho bukomeye cyane ntakizabukuraho, ariko abo ni ukutamenya ko iyi si dutuyeho izenguruka kandi ko ijuru ridasakaye.  Nabemeza ntashidikanya ko ubutegetsi bwa Paul kagame buzavaho nkuko n’ubwabubanjirije bwavuyeho, aho rwose simpafite ikibazo. Ikibazo nfite kandi mbabaza ni iki “ Ese mwiteguye kuyoboka inzira ya demokarasi n’amahoro nyuma y’ibyo mwaciyemo”

Umuhanga Ghandi yaravuze ati “ ibyo  uzageraho  ukoresheje urugomo, urugomo rusumbyeho ruzabikwambura” arongera ati “ Singombwa kuzimya urumuri rw’abandi, kugira ngo urwacu rushashagirane”

 

Imana ibane namwe mwese.